Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Ilam University of Medical Sciences

The unfinished agenda of communicable diseases among children and adolescents before the COVID-19 pandemic, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Mon May 20 16:57:44 2024

(2023) The unfinished agenda of communicable diseases among children and adolescents before the COVID-19 pandemic, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. pp. 313-335. ISSN 0140-6736

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Abstract

Background Communicable disease control has long been a focus of global health policy. There have been substantial reductions in the burden and mortality of communicable diseases among children younger than 5 years, but we know less about this burden in older children and adolescents, and it is unclear whether current programmes and policies remain aligned with targets for intervention. This knowledge is especially important for policy and programmes in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to use the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019 to systematically characterise the burden of communicable diseases across childhood and adolescence. Methods In this systematic analysis of the GBD study from 1990 to 2019, all communicable diseases and their manifestations as modelled within GBD 2019 were included, categorised as 16 subgroups of common diseases or presentations. Data were reported for absolute count, prevalence, and incidence across measures of cause-specific mortality (deaths and years of life lost), disability (years lived with disability YLDs), and disease burden (disability-adjusted life-years DALYs) for children and adolescents aged 0-24 years. Data were reported across the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and across time (1990-2019), and for 204 countries and territories. For HIV, we reported the mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) as a measure of health system performance. Findings In 2019, there were 3 & BULL;0 million deaths and 30 & BULL;0 million years of healthy life lost to disability (as measured by YLDs), corresponding to 288 & BULL;4 million DALYs from communicable diseases among children and adolescents globally (57 & BULL;3% of total communicable disease burden across all ages). Over time, there has been a shift in communicable disease burden from young children to older children and adolescents (largely driven by the considerable reductions in children younger than 5 years and slower progress elsewhere), although children younger than 5 years still accounted for most of the communicable disease burden in 2019. Disease burden and mortality were predominantly in low-SDI settings, with high and high-middle SDI settings also having an appreciable burden of communicable disease morbidity (4 & BULL;0 million YLDs in 2019 alone). Three cause groups (enteric infections, lower-respiratory-tract infections, and malaria) accounted for 59 & BULL;8% of the global communicable disease burden in children and adolescents, with tuberculosis and HIV both emerging as important causes during adolescence. HIV was the only cause for which disease burden increased over time, particularly in children and adolescents older than 5 years, and especially in females. Excess MIRs for HIV were observed for males aged 15-19 years in low-SDI settings. Interpretation Our analysis supports continued policy focus on enteric infections and lower-respiratory-tract infections, with orientation to children younger than 5 years in settings of low socioeconomic development. However, efforts should also be targeted to other conditions, particularly HIV, given its increased burden in older children and adolescents. Older children and adolescents also experience a large burden of communicable disease, further highlighting the need for efforts to extend beyond the first 5 years of life. Our analysis also identified substantial morbidity caused by communicable diseases affecting child and adolescent health across the world. Funding The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence for Driving Investment in Global Adolescent Health and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright & COPY; 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Item Type: Article
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Azzopardi, P. S.UNSPECIFIED
Kerr, J. A.UNSPECIFIED
Francis, K. L.UNSPECIFIED
Sawyer, S. M.UNSPECIFIED
Kennedy, E. C.UNSPECIFIED
Steer, A. C.UNSPECIFIED
Graham, S. M.UNSPECIFIED
Viner, R. M.UNSPECIFIED
Ward, J. L.UNSPECIFIED
Hennegan, J.UNSPECIFIED
Pham, M.UNSPECIFIED
Habito, C. M. D.UNSPECIFIED
Kurji, J.UNSPECIFIED
Cini, K. I.UNSPECIFIED
Beeson, J. G.UNSPECIFIED
Brown, A.UNSPECIFIED
Murray, C. J. L.UNSPECIFIED
Abbasi-Kangevari, M.UNSPECIFIED
Abolhassani, H.UNSPECIFIED
Adekanmbi, V.UNSPECIFIED
Agampodi, S. B.UNSPECIFIED
Ahmed, M. B.UNSPECIFIED
Ajami, M.UNSPECIFIED
Akbarialiabad, H.UNSPECIFIED
Akbarzadeh-Khiavi, M.UNSPECIFIED
Al-Ahdal, T. M. A.UNSPECIFIED
Ali, M. M.UNSPECIFIED
Samakkhah, S. A.UNSPECIFIED
Alimohamadi, Y.UNSPECIFIED
Alipour, V.UNSPECIFIED
Al-Jumaily, A.UNSPECIFIED
Amiri, S.UNSPECIFIED
Amirzade-Iranaq, M. H.UNSPECIFIED
Anoushiravani, A.UNSPECIFIED
Anvari, D.UNSPECIFIED
Arabloo, J.UNSPECIFIED
Arab-Zozani, M.UNSPECIFIED
Arkew, M.UNSPECIFIED
Armocida, B.UNSPECIFIED
Asadi-Pooya, A. A.UNSPECIFIED
Asemi, Z.UNSPECIFIED
Asgary, S.UNSPECIFIED
Athari, S. S.UNSPECIFIED
Azami, H.UNSPECIFIED
Azangou-Khyavy, M.UNSPECIFIED
Azizi, H.UNSPECIFIED
Bagheri, N.UNSPECIFIED
Bagherieh, S.UNSPECIFIED
Barone-Adesi, F.UNSPECIFIED
Barteit, S.UNSPECIFIED
Basu, S.UNSPECIFIED
Belete, M. A.UNSPECIFIED
Belo, L.UNSPECIFIED
Berhie, A. Y.UNSPECIFIED
Bijani, A.UNSPECIFIED
Bikbov, B.UNSPECIFIED
Burkart, K.UNSPECIFIED
Carreras, G.UNSPECIFIED
Charalampous, P.UNSPECIFIED
Abebe, E. C.UNSPECIFIED
Cruz-Martins, N.UNSPECIFIED
Dai, X. C.UNSPECIFIED
Dandona, L.UNSPECIFIED
Dandona, R.UNSPECIFIED
Degualem, S. M.UNSPECIFIED
Demetriades, A. K.UNSPECIFIED
Demlash, A. A.UNSPECIFIED
Desta, A. A.UNSPECIFIED
Dianatinasab, M.UNSPECIFIED
Doaei, S.UNSPECIFIED
Dorostkar, F.UNSPECIFIED
Effendi, D. E.UNSPECIFIED
Emami, A.UNSPECIFIED
Bain, L. E.UNSPECIFIED
Eskandarieh, S.UNSPECIFIED
Esmaeilzadeh, F.UNSPECIFIED
Faramarzi, A.UNSPECIFIED
Fatehizadeh, A.UNSPECIFIED
Ferrara, P.UNSPECIFIED
Fetensa, G.UNSPECIFIED
Fischer, F.UNSPECIFIED
Flor, L. S.UNSPECIFIED
Forouhari, A.UNSPECIFIED
Foroutan, M.UNSPECIFIED
Gaihre, S.UNSPECIFIED
Galehdar, N.UNSPECIFIED
Gallus, S.UNSPECIFIED
Gautam, R. K.UNSPECIFIED
Gebrehiwot, M.UNSPECIFIED
Gebremeskel, T. G.UNSPECIFIED
Getacher, L.UNSPECIFIED
Getachew, M. E.UNSPECIFIED
Ghamari, S. H.UNSPECIFIED
Nour, M. G.UNSPECIFIED
Goleij, P.UNSPECIFIED
Golitaleb, M.UNSPECIFIED
Gorini, G.UNSPECIFIED
Gupta, V. K.UNSPECIFIED
Hashemian, M.UNSPECIFIED
Hassankhani, H.UNSPECIFIED
othersUNSPECIFIED
Keywords: sustainable development under-5 mortality middle-income health deaths life General & Internal Medicine
Divisions:
Page Range: pp. 313-335
Journal or Publication Title: Lancet
Journal Index: ISI
Volume: 402
Number: 10398
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(23)00860-7
ISSN: 0140-6736
Depositing User: مهندس مهدی شریفی
URI: http://eprints.medilam.ac.ir/id/eprint/4488

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