Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Ilam University of Medical Sciences

An Updated Review on Complicated Mechanisms of COVID-19 Patho-genesis and Therapy: Direct Viral Damage, Renin-angiotensin System Dysregulation, Immune System Derangements, and Endothelial Dysfunction

Sun May 19 23:41:08 2024

(2022) An Updated Review on Complicated Mechanisms of COVID-19 Patho-genesis and Therapy: Direct Viral Damage, Renin-angiotensin System Dysregulation, Immune System Derangements, and Endothelial Dysfunction. Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets. pp. 81-91. ISSN 18715265 (ISSN)

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SARS-CoV-2 was reported as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in late December 2019. According to sequencing and phylogenetic studies, the new virus belongs to Coro-naviridae family and Betacoronavirus genus. Genomic sequence analysis has shown SARS-CoV-2 to be similar to SARS. SARS-CoV-2 is more infectious, and the high level of COVID-19 community transmission has led to a growing pandemic. Although infections in most patients with COVID-19 are moderate or mild, 20 of the patients develop a severe or critical form of the disease. COVID-19 may affect a wide range of organs and tissues, including the respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, and skin. Patients with COVID-19 have been confirmed to have renal, cardiovascular, gastro-intestinal, and nervous system problems in addition to pulmonary involvement. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 is being investigated, but it is possible that the organ damage might in part be caused by direct viral damage (detection of inclusion bodies in tissues, such as the kidneys), dysregulation of the immune system, renin-angiotensin system, bradykinin pathway, and coagulation, as well as host genetic factors and their polymorphisms, which may affect the disease severity. In this review, an update on the possible pathogenesis pathways of COVID-19 has been provided. It is hoped that the best care strategy will be developed for patients with COVID-19 by identifying its pathogenesis pathways. © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: COVID-19 immunopathogenesis pathogenesis Renin-angiotensin system SARS-CoV-2 thromboinflammation alpha 1 antitrypsin angiotensin converting enzyme 2 angiotensin receptor blood clotting factor 12 bradykinin chloroquine dabigatran dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase inhibitor favipiravir Fc receptor gamma interferon granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor hyaluronic acid inflammasome interleukin 1 interleukin 18 interleukin 1beta interleukin 6 Janus kinase inhibitor kallikrein lopinavir losartan low molecular weight heparin remdesivir ritonavir rituximab thymosin alpha1 toll like receptor transmembrane protease serine 2 tumor necrosis factor valsartan adult respiratory distress syndrome antibody dependent enhancement anticoagulant therapy Betacoronavirus coronavirus disease 2019 cytokine release cytokine storm cytopathogenic effect digestive system DNA polymorphism endothelial dysfunction gene frequency genetic polymorphism genetic susceptibility hematuria heredity human immune dysregulation lymphocytopenia Middle East respiratory syndrome nervous system neutrophil lymphocyte ratio nonhuman oxygen saturation pandemic proteinuria renin angiotensin aldosterone system respiratory system Review SARS coronavirus sequence analysis Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 skin virus damage virus load virus pathogenesis
Page Range: pp. 81-91
Journal or Publication Title: Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets
Journal Index: Scopus
Volume: 22
Number: 7
Identification Number:
ISSN: 18715265 (ISSN)
Depositing User: مهندس مهدی شریفی

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