Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Ilam University of Medical Sciences

Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17

Mon Jun 27 15:46:16 2022

(2020) Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17. Lancet Global Health. E1162-E1185. ISSN 2214-109X

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Abstract

Background Universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is an essential human right, recognised in the Sustainable Development Goals as crucial for preventing disease and improving human wellbeing. Comprehensive, high-resolution estimates are important to inform progress towards achieving this goal. We aimed to produce high-resolution geospatial estimates of access to drinking water and sanitation facilities. Methods We used a Bayesian geostatistical model and data from 600 sources across more than 88 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) to estimate access to drinking water and sanitation facilities on continuous continent-wide surfaces from 2000 to 2017, and aggregated results to policy-relevant administrative units. We estimated mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subcategories of facilities for drinking water (piped water on or off premises, other improved facilities, unimproved, and surface water) and sanitation facilities (septic or sewer sanitation, other improved, unimproved, and open defecation) with use of ordinal regression. We also estimated the number of diarrhoeal deaths in children younger than 5 years attributed to unsafe facilities and estimated deaths that were averted by increased access to safe facilities in 2017, and analysed geographical inequality in access within LMICs. Findings Across LMICs, access to both piped water and improved water overall increased between 2000 and 2017, with progress varying spatially. For piped water, the safest water facility type, access increased from 40.0 (95 uncertainty interval UI 39.4-40.7) to 50.3% (50.0-50.5), but was lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where access to piped water was mostly concentrated in urban centres. Access to both sewer or septic sanitation and improved sanitation overall also increased across all LMICs during the study period. For sewer or septic sanitation, access was 46.3% (95% UI 46.1-46.5) in 2017, compared with 28.7% (28.5-29.0) in 2000. Although some units improved access to the safest drinking water or sanitation facilities since 2000, a large absolute number of people continued to not have access in several units with high access to such facilities (>80%) in 2017. More than 253 000 people did not have access to sewer or septic sanitation facilities in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe, despite 88.6% (95% UI 87.2-89.7) access overall. Many units were able to transition from the least safe facilities in 2000 to safe facilities by 2017; for units in which populations primarily practised open defecation in 2000, 686 (95% UI 664-711) of the 1830 (1797-1863) units transitioned to the use of improved sanitation. Geographical disparities in access to improved water across units decreased in 76.1% (95% UI 71.6-80.7) of countries from 2000 to 2017, and in 53.9% (50.6-59.6) of countries for access to improved sanitation, but remained evident subnationally in most countries in 2017. Interpretation Our estimates, combined with geospatial trends in diarrhoeal burden, identify where efforts to increase access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities are most needed. By highlighting areas with successful approaches or in need of targeted interventions, our estimates can enable precision public health to effectively progress towards universal access to safe water and sanitation. Copyright (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Item Type: Article
Creators:
CreatorsEmail
Deshpande, A.UNSPECIFIED
Miller-Petrie, M. K.UNSPECIFIED
Lindstedt, P. A.UNSPECIFIED
Baumann, M. M.UNSPECIFIED
Johnson, K. B.UNSPECIFIED
Blacker, B. F.UNSPECIFIED
Abbastabar, H.UNSPECIFIED
Abd-Allah, F.UNSPECIFIED
Abdelalim, A.UNSPECIFIED
Abdollahpour, I.UNSPECIFIED
Abegaz, K. H.UNSPECIFIED
Abejie, A. N.UNSPECIFIED
Abreu, L. G.UNSPECIFIED
Abrigo, M. R. M.UNSPECIFIED
Abualhasan, A.UNSPECIFIED
Accrombessi, M. M. K.UNSPECIFIED
Adamu, A. A.UNSPECIFIED
Adebayo, O. M.UNSPECIFIED
Adedeji, I. A.UNSPECIFIED
Adedoyin, R. A.UNSPECIFIED
Adekanmbi, V.UNSPECIFIED
Adetokunboh, O. O.UNSPECIFIED
Adhikari, T. B.UNSPECIFIED
Afarideh, M.UNSPECIFIED
Agudelo-Botero, M.UNSPECIFIED
Ahmadi, M.UNSPECIFIED
Ahmadi, K.UNSPECIFIED
Ahmed, M. B.UNSPECIFIED
Ahmed, A. E.UNSPECIFIED
Akalu, T. Y.UNSPECIFIED
Akanda, A. S.UNSPECIFIED
Alahdab, F.UNSPECIFIED
Al-Aly, Z.UNSPECIFIED
Alam, S.UNSPECIFIED
Alam, N.UNSPECIFIED
Alamene, G. M.UNSPECIFIED
Alanzi, T. M.UNSPECIFIED
Albright, J.UNSPECIFIED
Albujeer, A.UNSPECIFIED
Alcalde-Rabanal, J. E.UNSPECIFIED
Alebel, A.UNSPECIFIED
Alemu, Z. A.UNSPECIFIED
Ali, M.UNSPECIFIED
Alijanzadeh, M.UNSPECIFIED
Alipour, V.UNSPECIFIED
Aljunid, S. M.UNSPECIFIED
Almasi, A.UNSPECIFIED
Almasi-Hashiani, A.UNSPECIFIED
Al-Mekhlafi, H. M.UNSPECIFIED
Altirkawi, K. A.UNSPECIFIED
Alvis-Guzman, N.UNSPECIFIED
Alvis-Zakzuk, N. J.UNSPECIFIED
Amini, S.UNSPECIFIED
Amit, A. M. L.UNSPECIFIED
Amul, G. G. H.UNSPECIFIED
Andrei, C. L.UNSPECIFIED
Anjomshoa, M.UNSPECIFIED
Ansariadi, A.UNSPECIFIED
Antonio, C. A. T.UNSPECIFIED
Antony, B.UNSPECIFIED
Antriyandarti, E.UNSPECIFIED
Arabloo, J.UNSPECIFIED
Aref, H. M. A.UNSPECIFIED
Aremu, O.UNSPECIFIED
Armoon, B.UNSPECIFIED
Arora, A.UNSPECIFIED
Aryal, K. K.UNSPECIFIED
Arzani, A.UNSPECIFIED
Asadi-Aliabadi, M.UNSPECIFIED
Asmelash, D.UNSPECIFIED
Atalay, H. T.UNSPECIFIED
Athari, S. M.UNSPECIFIED
Athari, S. S.UNSPECIFIED
Atre, S. R.UNSPECIFIED
Ausloos, M.UNSPECIFIED
Awasthi, S.UNSPECIFIED
Awoke, N.UNSPECIFIED
Quintanilla, B. P. A.UNSPECIFIED
Ayano, G.UNSPECIFIED
Ayanore, M. A.UNSPECIFIED
Aynalem, Y. A.UNSPECIFIED
Azari, S.UNSPECIFIED
Azman, A. S.UNSPECIFIED
Babaee, E.UNSPECIFIED
Badawi, A.UNSPECIFIED
Bagherzadeh, M.UNSPECIFIED
Bakkannavar, S. M.UNSPECIFIED
Balakrishnan, S.UNSPECIFIED
Banach, M.UNSPECIFIED
Banoub, J. A. M.UNSPECIFIED
Barac, A.UNSPECIFIED
Barboza, M. A.UNSPECIFIED
Barnighausen, T. W.UNSPECIFIED
Basu, S.UNSPECIFIED
Bay, V. D.UNSPECIFIED
Bayati, M.UNSPECIFIED
Bedi, N.UNSPECIFIED
Beheshti, M.UNSPECIFIED
Behzadifar, M.UNSPECIFIED
Behzadifar, M.UNSPECIFIED
othersUNSPECIFIED
Keywords: child growth systematic analysis global burden nutritional interventions hygiene diarrhea disease territories quality africa Public, Environmental & Occupational Health
Divisions:
Page Range: E1162-E1185
Journal or Publication Title: Lancet Global Health
Journal Index: ISI
Volume: 8
Number: 9
ISSN: 2214-109X
Depositing User: مهندس مهدی شریفی
URI: http://eprints.medilam.ac.ir/id/eprint/3194

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